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CODEX FOR FERMENTED MILKS

CODEX FOR FERMENTED MILKS

1. SCOPE

This standard applies to fermented milks, that is Fermented Milk including, Heat

Treated Fermented Milks, Concentrated Fermented Milks and composite milk products

based on these products, for direct consumption or further processing in conformity

with the defi nitions in Section 2 of this Standard.

2. DESCRIPTION

2.1 Fermented Milk is a milk product obtained by fermentation of milk, which milk

may have been manufactured from products obtained from milk with or without

compositional modifi cation as limited by the provision in Section 3.3, by the action of

suitable microorganisms and resulting in reduction of pH with or without coagulation

(iso-electric precipitation). These starter microorganisms shall be viable, active and

abundant in the product to the date of minimum durability. If the product is heattreated

after fermentation the requirement for viable microorganisms does not apply.

Certain Fermented Milks are characterized by specifi c starter culture(s) used for

fermentation as follows:

Yoghurt: Symbiotic cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus

delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

Alternate Culture Yoghurt: Cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus and any Lactobacillus species.

Acidophilus Milk: Lactobacillus acidophilus.

Kefi r: Starter culture prepared from kefi r grains, Lactobacillus kefi ri,

species of the genera Leuconostoc, Lactococcus and Acetobacter

growing in a strong specifi c relationship.

Kefi r grains constitute both lactose fermenting yeasts

(Kluyveromyces marxianus) and non-lactose-fermenting yeasts

(Saccharomyces unisporus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and

Saccharomyces exiguus).

Kumys: Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Kluyveromyces

marxianus.

Other microorganisms than those constituting the specifi c starter culture(s) specifi ed

above may be added.

2.2 Concentrated Fermented Milk is a Fermented Milk the protein of which has been

increased prior to or after fermentation to minimum 5.6%. Concentrated Fermented

Milks includes traditional products such as Stragisto (strained yoghurt), Labneh, Ymer

and Ylette.

2.3 Flavoured Fermented Milks are composite milk products, as defi ned in Section 2.3 of

the General Standard for the Use of Dairy Terms (CODEX STAN 206-1999) which contain

a maximum of 50% (m/m) of non-dairy ingredients (such as nutritive and non nutritive

FERMENTED MILKS (CODEX STAN 243-2003)

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sweeteners, fruits and vegetables as well as juices, purees, pulps, preparations and

preserves derived therefrom, cereals, honey, chocolate, nuts, coffee, spices and other

harmless natural fl avouring foods) and/or fl avours. The non-dairy ingredients can be

mixed in prior to/or after fermentation.

2.4 Drinks based on Fermented Milk are composite milk products, as defi ned in Section 2.3

of the General Standard for the Use of Dairy Terms (CODEX STAN 206-1999), obtained by

mixing Fermented Milk as described in Section 2.1 with potable water with or without the

addition of other ingredients such as whey, other non-dairy ingredients, and fl avourings.

Drinks Based on Fermented Milk contain a minimum of 40% (m/m) fermented milk.

Other microorganisms than those constituting the specifi c starter cultures may be added.

3. ESSENTIAL COMPOSITION AND QUALITY FACTORS

3.1 Raw materials

– Milk and/or products obtained from milk.

– Potable water for the use in reconstitution or recombination.

3.2 Permitted ingredients

– Starter cultures of harmless microorganisms including those specifi ed in Section 2;

– Other suitable and harmless microorganisms (in products covered by Section 2.4);

– Sodium chloride;

– Non-dairy ingredients as listed in Section 2.3 (Flavoured Fermented Milks);

– Potable water (in products covered by Section 2.4);

– Milk and milk products (in products covered by Section 2.4);

– Gelatine and starch in:

  • fermented milks heat-treated after fermentation;

  • fl avoured fermented milk;

  • drinks based on fermented milk; and

  • plain fermented milks if permitted by national legislation in the country of sale

to the fi nal consumer;

provided they are added only in amounts functionally necessary as governed

by Good Manufacturing Practice, taking into account any use of the stabilizers/

thickeners listed in section 4. These substances may be added either before or after

adding the non-dairy ingredients.

3.3 Composition

Fermented

Milk

Yoghurt, Alternate

Culture Yoghurt and

Acidophilus milk

Kefi r Kumys

Milk protein(a) (% m/m) min. 2.7% min. 2.7% min. 2.7%

Milk fat (% m/m) less than 10% less than 15% less than 10% less than 10%

Titrable acidity,

expressed as %

lactic acid (% m/m)

min. 0.3% min. 0.6% min. 0.6% min. 0.7%

Ethanol (% vol./w) min. 0.5%

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Fermented

Milk

Yoghurt, Alternate

Culture Yoghurt and

Acidophilus milk

Kefi r Kumys

Sum of microorganisms

constituting the starter

culture defi ned in

section 2.1 (cfu/g, in

total)

min. 107 min. 107 min. 107 min. 107

Labelled

microorganisms(b)

(cfu/g, total)

min. 106 min. 106

Yeasts (cfu/g) min. 104 min. 104

(a) Protein content is 6.38 multiplied by the total Kjeldahl nitrogen determined.

(b) Applies where a content claim is made in the labelling that refers to the presence of a specifi c

microorganism (other than those specifi ed in section 2.1 for the product concerned) that has been added

as a supplement to the specifi c starter culture.

In Flavoured Fermented Milks and Drinks based on Fermented Milk the above criteria

apply to the fermented milk part. The microbiological criteria (based on the proportion

of fermented milk product) are valid up to the date of minimum durability. This

requirement does not apply to products heat-treated after fermentation.

Compliance with the microbiological criteria specifi ed above is to be verifi ed through

analytical testing of the product through to “the date of minimum durability” after

the product has been stored under the storage conditions specifi ed in the labeling.

3.4 Essential manufacturing characteristics

Whey removal after fermentation is not permitted in the manufacture of fermented

milks, except for Concentrated Fermented Milk (Section 2.2).

4. FOOD ADDITIVES

Only those additives classes indicated in the table below may be used for the product

categories specifi ed. Within each additive class, and where permitted according to the

table, only those individual additives listed may be used and only within the limits specifi ed.

In accordance with Section 4.1 of the Preamble to the General Standard for Food

Additives (CODEX STAN 192-1995), additional additives may be present in the fl avoured

fermented milks and drinks based on fermented milk as a result of carry-over from

non-dairy ingredients.

Fermented Milks and Drinks

based on Fermented Milk

Fermented Milks Heat Treated After

Fermentation and Drinks based on

Fermented Milk Heat Treated After

Fermentation

Additive class Plain Flavoured Plain Flavoured

Acidity regulators − X X X

Carbonating agents X(b) X(b) X(b) X(b)

Colours − X − X

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Fermented Milks and Drinks

based on Fermented Milk

Fermented Milks Heat Treated After

Fermentation and Drinks based on

Fermented Milk Heat Treated After

Fermentation

Additive class Plain Flavoured Plain Flavoured

Emulsifi ers − X − X

Flavour enhancers − X − X

Packaging gases − X X X

Preservatives − − − X

Stabilizers X(a) X X X

Sweeteners − X − X

Thickeners X(a) X X X

(a) Use is restricted to reconstitution and recombination and if permitted by national legislation

in the country of sale to the fi nal consumer.

(b) Use of carbonating agents is technologically justifi ed in Drinks based on Fermented Milk only.

X The use of additives belonging to the class is technologically justifi ed. In the case of fl avoured products

the additives are technologically justifi ed in the dairy portion.

− The use of additives belonging to the class is not technologically justifi ed

Acidity regulators, colours, emulsifi ers, packaging gases and preservatives listed in Table

3 of the General Standard for Food Additives (CODEX STAN 192-1995) are acceptable

for use in fermented milk products categories as specifi ed in the table above.

INS No. Name of additive Maximum level

Acidity regulators

334 Tartaric acid L(+)-

2 000 mg/kg as tartaric acid

335(i) Monosodium tartrate

335(ii) Sodium L(+)-tartrate

336(i) Monopotassium tartrate

336(ii) Dipotassium tartrate

337 Potassium sodium L(+)-tartrate

355 Adipic acid

1 500 mg/kg as adipic acid

356 Sodium adipate

357 Potassium adipate

359 Ammonium adipate

Carbonating agents

290 Carbon dioxide GMP

Colours

100(i) Curcumin 100 mg/kg

101(i) Ribofl avin, synthetic

300 mg/kg

101(ii) Ribofl avin 5’-phosphate, sodium

102 Tartrazine 300 mg/kg

104 Quinoline yellow 150 mg/kg

110 Sunset yellow FCF 300 mg/kg

120 Carmines 150 mg/kg

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INS No. Name of additive Maximum level

122 Azorubine (Carmoisine) 150 mg/kg

124 Ponceau 4R (Cochineal red A) 150 mg/kg

129 Allura red AC 300 mg/kg

132 Indigotine 100 mg/kg

133 Brilliant blue FCF 150 mg/kg

141(i) Chlorophylls, copper complexes

500 mg/kg

141(ii) Chlorophyllins, copper complexes,

sodium and potassium salts

143 Fast green FCF 100 mg/kg

150b Caramel II – sulfi te caramel 150 mg/kg

150c Caramel III – ammonia caramel 2 000 mg/kg

150d Caramel IV – sulfi te ammonia caramel 2 000 mg/kg

151 Brilliant black (Black PN) 150 mg/kg

155 Brown HT 150 mg/kg

160a(i) Carotene, beta-, synthetic

100 mg/kg

160e Carotenal, beta-apo-8’-

160f Carotenoic acid, methyl or ethyl ester,

beta-apo-8’-

160a(iii) Carotenes, beta-, Blakeslea trispora

160a(ii) Carotenes, beta-, vegetable 600 mg/kg

160b(i) Annatto extracts, bixin-based 20 mg/kg as bixin

160b(ii) Annatto extracts, norbixin-based 20 mg/kg as norbixin

160d Lycopenes 30 mg/kg as pure lycopene

161b(i) Lutein from Tagetes erecta 150 mg/kg

161h(i) Zeaxanthin, synthetic 150 mg/kg

163(ii) Grape skin extract 100 mg/kg

172(i) Iron oxide, black

172(ii) Iron oxide, red 100 mg/kg

172(iii) Iron oxide, yellow

Emulsifi ers

432 Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate

3 000 mg/kg

433 Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate

434 Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan

monopalmitate

435 Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate

436 Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan tristearate

472e Diacetyltartaric and fatty acid esters of

glycerol 10 000 mg/kg

473 Sucrose esters of fatty acids 5 000 mg/kg

474 Sucroglycerides 5 000 mg/kg

475 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids 2 000 mg/kg

477 Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids 5 000 mg/kg

481(i) Sodium stearoyl lactylate 10 000 mg/kg

482(i) Calcium stearoyl lactylate 10 000 mg/kg

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INS No. Name of additive Maximum level

491 Sorbitan monostearate

5 000 mg/kg

492 Sorbitan tristearate

493 Sorbitan monolaurate

494 Sorbitan monooleate

495 Sorbitan monopalmitate

900a Polydimethylsiloxane 50 mg/kg

Flavour enhancers

580 Magnesium gluconate GMP

620 Glutamic acid, (L+)- GMP

621 Monosodium L-glutamate GMP

622 Monopotassium L-glutamate GMP

623 Calcium di-L-glutamate GMP

624 Monoammonium L-glutamate GMP

625 Magnesium di-L-glutamate GMP

626 Guanylic acid, 5’- GMP

627 Disodium 5’-guanylate- GMP

628 Dipotassium 5’-guanylate- GMP

629 Calcium 5’-guanylate GMP

630 Inosinic acid, 5’- GMP

631 Disodium 5’-inosinate GMP

632 Dipotassium 5’-inosinate GMP

633 Calcium 5’-inosinate GMP

634 Calcium 5’-ribonucleotides- GMP

635 Disodium 5’-ribonucleotides- GMP

636 Maltol GMP

637 Ethyl maltol GMP

Preservatives

200 Sorbic acid

1 000 mg/kg as sorbic acid

201 Sodium sorbate

202 Potassium sorbate

203 Calcium sorbate

210 Benzoic acid

300 mg/kg as benzoic acid

211 Sodium benzoate

212 Potassium benzoate

213 Calcium benzoate

234 Nisin 500 mg/kg

Stabilizers and Thickeners

170(i) Calcium carbonate GMP

331(iii) Trisodium citrate GMP

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INS No. Name of additive Maximum level

338 Phosphoric acid

1 000 mg/kg, singly or in

combination, as phosphorus

339(i) Sodium dihydrogen phosphate

339(ii) Disodium hydrogen phosphate

339(iii) Trisodium phosphate

340(i) Potassium dihydrogen phosphate

340(ii) Dipotassium hydrogen phosphate

340(iii) Tripotassium phosphate

341(i) Monocalcium dihydrogen phosphate

341(ii) Calcium hydrogen phosphate

341(iii) Tricalcium orthophosphate

342(i) Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate

342(ii) Diammonium hydrogen phosphate

343(i) Monomagnesium phosphate

343(ii) Magnesium hydrogen phosphate

343(iii) Trimagnesium phosphate

450(i) Disodium diphosphate

450(ii) Trisodium diphosphate

450(iii) Tetrasodium diphosphate

450(v) Tetrapotassium diphosphate

450(vi) Dicalcium diphosphate

450(vii) Calcium dihydrogen diphosphate

451(i) Pentasodium triphosphate

451(ii) Pentapotassium triphosphate

452(i) Sodium polyphosphate

452(ii) Potassium polyphosphate

452(iii) Sodium calcium polyphosphate

452(iv) Calcium polyphosphate

452(v) Ammonium polyphosphate

542 Bone phosphate

400 Alginic acid GMP

401 Sodium alginate GMP

402 Potassium alginate GMP

403 Ammonium alginate GMP

404 Calcium alginate GMP

405 Propylene glycol alginate GMP

406 Agar GMP

407 Carrageenan GMP

407a Processed euchema seaweed (PES) GMP

410 Carob bean gum GMP

412 Guar gum GMP

413 Tragacanth gum GMP

414 Gum Arabic (Acacia gum) GMP

415 Xanthan gum GMP

416 Karaya gum GMP

417 Tara gum GMP

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INS No. Name of additive Maximum level

418 Gellan gum GMP

425 Konjac fl our GMP

440 Pectins GMP

459 Cyclodextrin, -beta 5 mg/kg

460(i) Microcrystalline cellulose (Cellulose gel) GMP

460(ii) Powdered cellulose GMP

461 Methyl cellulose GMP

463 Hydroxypropyl cellulose GMP

464 Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose GMP

465 Methyl ethyl cellulose GMP

466 Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose

(Cellulose gum) GMP

467 Ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose GMP

468 Cross-linked sodium carboxymethyl

cellulose (Cross-linked cellulose gum) GMP

469

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose,

enzymatically hydrolyzed (Cellulose

gum, enzymatically hydrolyzed)

GMP

470(i)

Salts of myristic, palmitic and stearic acids

with ammonia, calcium, potassium and

sodium

GMP

470(ii) Salts of oleic acid with calcium,

potassium and sodium GMP

471 Mono- and di- glycerides of fatty acids GMP

472a Acetic and fatty acid esters of glycerol GMP

472b Lactic and fatty acid esters of glycerol GMP

472c Citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol GMP

508 Potassium chloride GMP

509 Calcium chloride GMP

511 Magnesium chloride GMP

1200 Polydextrose GMP

1400 Dextrins, roasted starch GMP

1401 Acid treated starch GMP

1402 Alkaline treated starch GMP

1403 Bleached starch GMP

1404 Oxidized starch GMP

1405 Starches, enzyme treated GMP

1410 Mono starch phosphate GMP

1412 Distarch phosphate GMP

1413 Phosphated distarch phosphate GMP

1414 Acetylated distarch phosphate GMP

1420 Starch acetate GMP

1422 Acetylated distarch adipate GMP

1440 Hydroxypropyl starch GMP

1442 Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate GMP

1450 Starch sodium octenyl succinate GMP

1451 Acetylated oxidized starch GMP

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INS No. Name of additive Maximum level

Sweeteners(a)

420 Sorbitol GMP

421 Mannitol GMP

950 Acesulfame potassium 350 mg/kg

951 Aspartame 1 000 mg/kg

952 Cyclamates 250 mg/kg

953 Isomalt (Hydrogenated isomaltulose) GMP

954 Saccharin 100 mg/kg

955 Sucralose (Trichlorogalactosucrose) 400 mg/kg

956 Alitame 100 mg/kg

961 Neotame 100 mg/kg

962 Aspartame-acesulfame salt 350 mg/kg on an acesulfame

potassium equivalent basis

964 Polyglycitol syrup GMP

965 Maltitols GMP

966 Lactitol GMP

967 Xylitol GMP

968 Erythritol GMP

(a) The use of sweeteners is limited to milk-and milk derivative-based products energy reduced

or with no added sugar.

5. CONTAMINANTS

The products covered by this Standard shall comply with the Maximum Levels

for contaminants that are specifi ed for the product in the General Standard for

Contaminants and Toxins in Foods and Feeds (CODEX STAN 193-1995).

The milk used in the manufacture of the products covered by this Standard shall

comply with the Maximum Levels for contaminants and toxins specifi ed for milk by the

General Standard for Contaminants and Toxins in Foods and Feeds (CODEX STAN 193-

1995) and with the maximum residue limits for veterinary drug residues and pesticides

established for milk by the CAC.

6. HYGIENE

It is recommended that the products covered by the provisions of this standard be

prepared and handled in accordance with the appropriate sections of the General

Principles of Food Hygiene (CAC/RCP 1-1969), the Code of Hygienic Practice for

Milk and Milk Products (CAC/RCP 57-2004) and other relevant Codex texts such as

Codes of Hygienic Practice and Codes of Practice. The products should comply with

any microbiological criteria established in accordance with the Principles for the

Establishment and Application of Microbiological Criteria for Foods (CAC/GL 21-1997).

FERMENTED MILKS (CODEX STAN 243-2003)

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7. LABELLING

In addition to the provisions of the General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged

Foods (CODEX STAN 1-1985) and the General Standard for the Use of Dairy Terms

(CODEX STAN 206-1999), the following specifi c provisions apply:

7.1 Name of the food

7.1.1 The name of the products covered by sections 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3, shall be fermented milk

or concentrated fermented milk as appropriate.

However, these names may be replaced by the designations Yoghurt, Acidophilus Milk,

Kefi r, Kumys, Stragisto, Labneh, Ymer and Ylette, provided that the product complies

with the specifi c provisions of this Standard. Yoghurt may be spelled as appropriate in

the country of retail sale.

“Alternate culture yoghurt”, as defi ned in Section 2, shall be named through the use of

an appropriate qualifi er in conjunction with the word “yoghurt”. The chosen qualifi er

shall describe, in a way that is accurate and not misleading to the consumer, the nature

of the change imparted to the yoghurt through the selection of the specifi c Lactobacilli

in the culture for manufacturing the product. Such change may include a marked

difference in the fermentation organisms, metabolites and/or sensory properties of the

product when compared to the product designated solely as “yoghurt”. Examples of

qualifi ers which describe differences in sensory properties include terms such as “mild”

and “tangy”. The term “alternate culture yoghurt” shall not apply as a designation.

The above specifi c terms may be used in connection with the term “frozen” provided

(i) that the product submitted to freezing complies with the requirements in this

Standard, (ii) that the specifi c starter cultures can be reactivated in reasonable numbers

by thawing, and (iii) that the frozen product is named as such and is sold for direct

consumption, only.

Other fermented milks and concentrated fermented milks may be designated with

other variety names as specifi ed in the national legislation of the country in which the

product is sold, or names existing by common usage, provided that such designations

do not create an erroneous impression in the country of retail sale regarding the

character and identity of the food.

7.1.2 Products obtained from fermented milk(s) heat treated after fermentation shall be

named “Heat Treated Fermented Milk”. If the consumer would be misled by this name,

the products shall be named as permitted by national legislation in the country of retail

sale. In countries where no such legislation exists, or no other names are in common

usage, the product shall be named “Heat Treated Fermented Milk”.

7.1.3 The designation of Flavoured Fermented Milks shall include the name of the principal

fl avouring substance(s) or fl avour(s) added.

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7.1.4 The name of the products defi ned in Section 2.4 shall be drinks based on fermented milk

or may be designated with other variety names as allowed in the national legislation

of the country in which the product is sold. In particular, water added as an ingredient

to fermented milk shall be declared in the list of ingredients1 and the percentage of

fermented milk used (m/m) shall clearly appear on the label. When fl avoured, the

designation shall include the name of the principal fl avouring substance(s) or fl avour(s)

7.1.5 Fermented milks to which only nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners have been added, may

be labeled as “sweetened ______”, the blank being replaced by the term “Fermented

Milk” or another designation as specifi ed in Section 7.1.1 and 7.1.4. If non-nutritive

sweeteners are added in partial or total substitution to sugar, the mention “sweetened

with ______” or “sugared and sweetened with ______” should appear close to the name

of the product, the blank being fi lled in with the name of the artifi cial sweeteners.

7.1.6 The names covered by this Standard may be used in the designation, on the label, in

commercial documents and advertising of other foods, provided that it is used as an

ingredient and that the characteristics of the ingredient are maintained to a relevant

degree in order not to mislead the consumer.

7.2 Declaration of fat content

If the consumer would be mislead by the omission, the milk fat content shall be

declared in a manner acceptable in the country of sale to the fi nal consumer, either as

(i) a percentage of mass or volume, or (ii) in grams per serving as qualifi ed in the label,

provided that the number of servings is stated.

7.3 Labelling of non-retail containers

Information required in Section 7 of this Standard and Sections 4.1 to 4.8 of the General

Standard for the Labelling of Pre-packaged Foods, and, if necessary, storage instructions,

shall be given either on the container or in accompanying documents, except that the

name of the product, lot identifi cation, and the name and address of the manufacturer

or packer, shall appear on the container. However, lot identifi cation and the name and

address of the manufacturer or packager may be replaced by an identifi cation mark,

provided that such mark is clearly identifi able with the accompanying documents.

8. METHODS OF SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

See CODEX STAN 234-1999.

CODEX FOR FERMENTED MILKS