×
CODEX STANDARD FOR DAIRY FAT SPREADS

CODEX STANDARD FOR DAIRY FAT SPREADS

CODEX STAN 253-2006

1. SCOPE

This Standard applies to dairy fat spreads intended for use as spreads for direct

consumption, or for further processing, in conformity with section 2 of this Standard.

2. DESCRIPTION

Dairy fat spreads are milk products relatively rich in fat in the form of a spreadable

emulsion principally of the type of water-in-milk fat that remains in solid phase at a

temperature of 20°C.

3. ESSENTIAL COMPOSITION AND QUALITY FACTORS

3.1 Raw materials

– Milk and/or products obtained from milk.

Raw materials, including milk fat, may have been subjected to any appropriate

processing (e.g. physical modifi cations including fractionation) prior to its use.

3.2 Permitted Ingredients

The following substances may be added:

– Flavours and fl avourings;

– Safe and suitable processing aids;

– Where allowed in accordance with the Codex General Principles for the Addition

of Essential Nutrients for Food (CAC/GL 9-1987), maximum and minimum levels

for vitamins A, D and other nutrients, where appropriate, should be laid down

by national legislation in accordance with the needs of individual countries

including, where appropriate, the prohibition of the use of particular nutrients;

– Sodium chloride and potassium chloride as a salt substitute;

– Sugars (any carbohydrate sweetening matter);

– Inulin and malto-dextrins (limited by GMP);

– Starter cultures of harmless lactic acid and/or fl avour producing bacteria;

– Water;

– Gelatine and Starches (limited by GMP). These substances can be used in the same

function as thickeners, provided they are added only in amounts functionally

necessary as governed by GMP taking into account any use of the thickeners

listed in section 4.

Adopted in 2006. Amendment 2008, 2010.

MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS (2nd Edition)

30

3.3 Composition

The milk fat content shall be no less than 10% and less than 80% (m/m) and shall

represent at least 2/3 of the dry matter.

Compositional modifi cations of Dairy Fat Spreads are restricted by the requirements of

section 4.3.3 of the General Standard for the Use of Dairy Terms.

4. FOOD ADDITIVES

Only those additive functional classes indicated as technologically justifi ed in the table

below may be used for the product categories specifi ed. Within each additive class,

and where permitted according to the table, only those food additives listed below the

table may be used and only within the functions and limits specifi ed.

Additive functional class

Justifi ed use in dairy fat spreads:

< 70% milk fat content(a) ≥ 70% milk fat content

Acidity regulators X X

Anticaking agents – –

Antifoaming agents X X

Antioxidants X X

Bleaching agents – –

Bulking agents – –

Carbonating agents – –

Colours X X

Colour retention agents – –

Emulsifi ers X –

Firming agents – –

Flavour enhancers X –

Foaming agents – –

Gelling agents – –

Humectants – –

Preservatives X X

Propellants X X

Raising agents – –

Sequestrants – –

Stabilizers X –

Thickeners X –

(a) The application of GMP in the use of emulsifi ers, stabilizers, thickeners and fl avour enhancers includes

consideration of the fact that the amount required to obtain the technological function in the product

decreases with increasing fat content, fading out at fat content about 70%.

DAIRY FAT SPREADS (CODEX STAN 253-2006)

31

INS no. Name of additive Maximum level

Colours

100(i) Curcumin 5 mg/kg

160a(i) Carotene, beta-, synthetic

35 mg/kg, singly or in

combination

160a(ii) Carotene, beta-, Blakeslea trispora

160e Carotenal, beta-apo-8’-

160f Carotenoic acid, ethyl ester beta-apo-8’-

160b(i) Annatto extracts, –bixin-based 20 mg/kg

Emulsifi ers

432 Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate

10 000 mg/kg, singly or in

combination

(Dairy fat spreads for baking

purposes only)

433 Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate

434 Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monopalmitate

435 Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate

436 Polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan tristearate

471 Mono and diglycerides of fatty acids Limited by GMP

472a Acetic and fatty acid esters of glycerol Limited by GMP

472b Lactic and fatty acid esters of glycerol Limited by GMP

472c Citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol Limited by GMP

472e Diacetyltartaric and fatty acid esters of glycerol 10 000 mg/kg

473 Sucrose esters of fatty acids 10 000 mg/kg, dairy fat spreads

for baking purposes only.

474 Sucroglycerides 10 000 mg/kg, dairy fat spreads

for baking purposes only.

475 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids 5 000 mg/kg

476 Polyglycerol esters of interesterifi ed ricinoleic acid 4 000 mg/kg

481(i) Sodium stearoyl lactylate 10 000 mg/kg, singly or in

482(i) Calcium stearoy lactylate combination

491 Sorbitan monostearate

10 000 mg/kg, singly or in

combination

492 Sorbitan tristearate

493 Sorbitan monolaurate

494 Sorbitan monooleate

495 Sorbitan monopalmitate

Preservatives

200 Sorbic acid 2 000 mg/kg, singly or in

combination (as sorbic acid) for

fat contents < 59% and 1 000

mg/kg singly or in combination

(as sorbic acid) for fat contents

≥ 59%

201 Sodium sorbate

202 Potassium sorbate

203 Calcium sorbate

Stabilizers/thickeners

340 (i) Potassium dihydrogen phosphate

880 mg/kg, singly or in

combination, as phosphorous

340 (ii) Dipotassium hydrogen phosphate

340 (iii) Tripotassium phosphate

341 (i) Calcium dihydrogen phosphate

341 (ii) Calcium hydrogen phosphate

341 (iii) Tricalcium phosphate

450 (i) Disodium diposphate

MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS (2nd Edition)

32

INS no. Name of additive Maximum level

400 Alginic acid Limited by GMP

401 Sodium alginate Limited by GMP

402 Potassium alginate Limited by GMP

403 Ammonium alginate Limited by GMP

404 Calcium alginate Limited by GMP

406 Agar Limited by GMP

405 Propylene glycol alginate 3 000 mg/kg

407 Carrageenan Limited by GMP

407a Processed euchema seaweed (PES) Limited by GMP

410 Carob bean gum Limited by GMP

412 Guar gum Limited by GMP

413 Tragacanth gum Limited by GMP

414 Gum arabic (acacia gum) Limited by GMP

415 Xanthan gum Limited by GMP

418 Gellan gum Limited by GMP

422 Glycerol Limited by GMP

440 Pectins Limited by GMP

460 (i) Microcrystalline cellulose (Cellulose gel) Limited by GMP

460 (ii) Powdered cellulose Limited by GMP

461 Methyl cellulose Limited by GMP

463 Hydroxypropyl cellulose Limited by GMP

464 Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose Limited by GMP

465 Methyl ethyl cellulose Limited by GMP

466 Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (Cellulose gum) Limited by GMP

500 (i) Sodium carbonate Limited by GMP

500(ii) Sodium hydrogen carbonate Limited by GMP

500 (iii) Sodium sesquicarbonate Limited by GMP

1400 Dextrin, roasted starch Limited by GMP

1401 Acid-treated starch Limited by GMP

1402 Alkaline-treated starch Limited by GMP

1403 Bleached starch Limited by GMP

1404 Oxidized starch Limited by GMP

1405 Starches, enzyme treated Limited by GMP

1410 Monostarch phosphate Limited by GMP

1412 Distarch phosphate Limited by GMP

1413 Phosphated distarch phosphate Limited by GMP

1414 Acetylated distarch phosphate Limited by GMP

1420 Starch acetate esterifi ed with acetic anhydride Limited by GMP

1422 Acetylated distarch adipate Limited by GMP

1440 Hydroxypropyl starch Limited by GMP

1442 Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate Limited by GMP

Acidity regulators

325 Sodium lactate Limited by GMP

326 Potassium lactate Limited by GMP

DAIRY FAT SPREADS (CODEX STAN 253-2006)

33

INS no. Name of additive Maximum level

327 Calcium lactate Limited by GMP

329 Magnesium lactate, DL- Limited by GMP

331(i) Sodium dihydrogen citrate Limited by GMP

331(ii) Disodium monohydrogen citrate Limited by GMP

334 Tartaric acid L(+)-

5 000 mg/kg, singly or in

combination as tartaric acid

335 (i) Sodium (L+)-tartrate

335 (ii) Disodium tartrate

336 (i) Monopotassium tartrate

336 (ii) Dipotassium tartrate

337 Potassium sodium (L+)-tartrate

339 (i) Sodium dihydrogen phosphate

880 mg/kg, singly or in

combination as phosphorous

339 (ii) Sodium hydrogen phosphate

339 (iii) Trisodium phosphate

338 Phosphoric acid

524 Sodium hydroxide Limited by GMP

526 Calcium hydroxide Limited by GMP

Antioxidants

304 Ascorbyl palmitate

500 mg/kg, as ascorbyl stearate

305 Ascorbyl stearate

307 Tocopherols 500 mg/kg

310 Propyl gallate 200 mg/kg, singly or in

combination: butylated

hydroxyanisole (INS 320),

butylated hydroxytoluene (INS

321), and propyl gallate (INS

310) as a combined maximum

level of 200 mg/kg on a fat or

oil basis. May be used only in

dairy fat spreads intended for

cooking purposes.

320 Butylated hydroxyanisole 200 mg/kg, singly or in

combination: butylated

hydroxyanisole (INS 320),

butylated hydroxytoluene (INS

321), and propyl gallate (INS

310) as a combined maximum

level of 200 mg/kg on a fat or

oil basis. May be used only in

dairy fat spreads intended for

cooking purposes.

321 Butylated hydroxytoluene 75 mg/kg, singly or in

combination: butylated

hydroxyanisole (INS 320),

butylated hydroxytoluene (INS

321), and propyl gallate (INS

310) as a combined maximum

level of 200 mg/kg on a fat or

oil basis. May be used only in

dairy fat spreads intended for

cooking purposes.

MILK AND MILK PRODUCTS (2nd Edition)

34

INS no. Name of additive Maximum level

Anti-foaming agents

900 a Polydimethylsiloxane 10 mg/kg in dairy fat spreads for

frying purposes, only

Flavour enhancers

627 Disodium 5’-guanylate Limited by GMP

628 Dipotassium 5’-guanylate Limited by GMP

5. CONTAMINANTS

The products covered by this Standard shall comply with the Maximum Levels

for contaminants that are specifi ed for the product in the General Standard for

Contaminants and Toxins in Food and Feed (CODEX STAN 193-1995).

The milk used in the manufacture of the products covered by this Standard shall

comply with the Maximum Levels for contaminants and toxins specifi ed for milk by the

General Standard for Contaminants and Toxins in Food and Feed (CODEX STAN 193-

1995) and with the maximum residue limits for veterinary drug residues and pesticides

established for milk by the CAC.

6. HYGIENE

It is recommended that the products covered by the provisions of this standard be

prepared and handled in accordance with the appropriate sections of the General

Principles of Food Hygiene (CAC/RCP 1-1969), the Code of Hygienic Practice for

Milk and Milk Products (CAC/RCP 57-2004) and other relevant Codex texts such as

Codes of Hygienic Practice and Codes of Practice. The products should comply with

any microbiological criteria established in accordance with the Principles for the

Establishment and Application of Microbiological Criteria for Foods (CAC/GL 21-1997).

7. LABELLING

In addition to the provisions of the General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged

Foods (CODEX STAN 1-1985) and the General Standard for the Use of Dairy Terms

(CODEX STAN 206-1999), the following specifi c provisions apply:

7.1 Name of the food

7.1.1 The name of the food shall be ”Dairy Fat Spread”. Other names may be used if allowed

by national legislation in the country of retail sale.

7.1.2 Dairy fat spreads with reduced fat content may be labelled as “reduced fat” in line

with the Guidelines for the Use of Nutrition and Health Claims (CAC/GL 23-1997).

7.1.3 The designations and any qualifying terms should be translated into other languages

in a non-misleading way and not necessarily word for word and should be acceptable

in the country of retail sale.

DAIRY FAT SPREADS (CODEX STAN 253-2006)

35

7.1.4 Dairy fat spreads may be labelled to indicate whether it is salted or unsalted according

to national legislation.

7.1.5 Dairy fat spreads that have been sweetened shall be labelled to indicate that they have

been sweetened.

7.2 Declaration of fat content

The milk fat content shall be declared in a manner found acceptable in the country of

retail sale, either (i) as a percentage by mass, or (ii) in grams per serving as quantifi ed

in the label provided that the number of servings is stated.

7.3 Labelling of non-retail containers

Information required in Section 7 of this Standard and Sections 4.1 to 4.8 of the

General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged Foods (CODEX STAN 1-1985) and, if

necessary, storage instructions, shall be given either on the container or in accompanying

documents, except that the name of the product, lot identifi cation and the name

and address of the manufacturer or packer shall appear on the container. However,

lot identifi cation and the name and address of the manufacturer or packer may be

replaced by an identifi cation mark, provided that such a mark is clearly identifi able on

the accompanying documents.

8. METHODS OF SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS

See CODEX STAN 234-1999.